HIV and AIDS: What You Need to Know
HIV is a virus that can lead to AIDS
What are HIV and AIDS?
HIV is a virus that causes damage to the body's immune system. The immune system is the body's way of fighting infections. When the immune system does not work well, the body cannot fight off many types of infections, including ones that can become life threatening.
The damage to the immune system that is caused by HIV can occur over months, as sometimes happens when infants have HIV. In adults with HIV, the damage can occur more slowly.
AIDS is the final stage of HIV. People with HIV are said to have AIDS when their immune systems are severely damaged to the point that HIV-related infections or cancers occur. Not everyone who has HIV will get AIDS.
How is HIV spread?
Because it can take years for symptoms to develop, many people do not know they have HIV. During this time, they can unknowingly spread the virus to others. Most people with HIV appear healthy. A blood test is the only way to be sure.
HIV can be spread
By sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, or oral) with a person who has HIV.
Through contact with an HIV-infected person's blood. This can happen when sharing syringes or needles, accidentally getting stuck by a needle with a person's blood on it, or coming into contact with other body fluids containing blood.
From a mother with HIV to their baby during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breastfeeding or by sharing pre-chewed food.
Through blood or blood products from blood transfusions, organ transplants, or artificial insemination. This type of spread is very rare because donated blood, sperm, tissue, and organs are routinely screened and tested for HIV.
cannot be spread
Through everyday contact, like shaking hands, hugging, sitting next to, playing, or sharing a glass, utensil, or plate, with a person with HIV
By eating food prepared by a person with HIV
Through the air, insect bites, or donated blood
By sharing bathrooms or swimming pools that have been used by a person with HIV
What your children should know about HIV and AIDS
Teach your children the facts about HIV and AIDS, including how HIV is not spread (see
Young children will not be able to understand all the information, but they should know
To never touch anyone else's blood.
To never touch needles or syringes. If they find one, they should not touch it and they should tell an adult.
Older children and teens should know about
Abstinence. The best way for a person to protect themselves against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is to not have any type of sex (vaginal, anal, or oral).
Condoms. The best way to lower the risk for HIV and other STIs, if a person is sexually active, is to use a latex condom correctly every time they have sex and to limit their number of sexual partners. If teens are sexually active, encourage them and their partners to be tested for HIV and other STIs before they start sexual activity with each other.
Drug use. Drugs injected with needles or syringes are the riskiest because the needle or syringe can spread blood from one person to another. Also, using alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs can increase the risk for HIV. That's because drugs affect a person's judgment and can lead to risky behaviors, like having sex without a condom or with multiple partners.
PrEP. PrEP, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, means taking a medicine before engaging in high-risk behaviors that can lower the risk for HIV. Avoiding these behaviors is ideal, but if you suspect that your teen may be engaging in such behaviors, consider talking with their doctor about PrEP.
Who should be tested for HIV?
The AAP recommends at least one routine HIV screening for all teens 15 years and older. In most states, HIV testing is strongly recommended for pregnant women during routine prenatal care.
Anyone involved in the risky behaviors listed previously (see
Here are symptoms that may suggest a need for HIV testing.
Loss of appetite
Poor weight gain or rapid weight loss
Swelling of the lymph nodes (glands) that does notgo away
Extreme tiredness or lethargy that does not go away with rest
White spots in the mouth
Recurring or unusual infections
How is HIV treated?
There is no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, there are medicines that can suppress the infection so symptoms do not develop. These medicines also prevent the virus from spreading to other people and, in the case of a pregnant woman, to a fetus. Because early treatment of an HIV infection (before there are symptoms of AIDS) is most effective at preventing symptoms and keeping people healthy, it is important to get tested to know whether you have an HIV infection. If you do, you can stay healthy for many years—and even your whole life—if you start taking medicines early after you find out you have HIV and keep taking them consistently.
Visit HealthyChildren.org for more information.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of 67,000 primary care pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists, and pediatric surgical specialists dedicated to the health, safety, and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.
In all aspects of its publishing program (writing, review, and production), the AAP is committed to promoting principles of equity, diversity, and inclusion.
The information contained in this publication should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.